Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The institute is a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant university, with an urban campus that extends more than a mile (1.6 km) alongside the Charles River. The institute also encompasses a number of major off-campus facilities such as the MIT Lincoln Laboratory, the Bates Center, and the Haystack Observatory, as well as affiliated laboratories such as the Broad and Whitehead Institutes. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering. It has since played a key role in the development of many aspects of modern science, engineering, mathematics, and technology, and is widely known for its innovation and academic strength.[麻省理工学院(Massachusetts Institute of Technology,MIT)是美国一所综合性私立大学,位于马萨诸塞州剑桥市(剑桥市属于波士顿都市区,波士顿都市区属于大波士顿地区) [27] ,校园面积166英亩,查尔斯河(Charles River)将其与波士顿的后湾区(Back Bay)隔开。 [27-28]